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Title:Codes of Ethics for Historians, Archaeologists and Archivists
Date of publishing:July 29, 2010
Category:Other content

Codes of Ethics for Historians, Archaeologists and Archivists



Antoon De Baets, "A Code of Ethics for Historians (proposal)", in Antoon De Baets, Responsible History (New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2009), 188-196. For the book section, click here: [E]; for the book, click here: [E]

Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA), Mission Statement (incl. Code of Ethics) (s.d.) [E]
Concerned Archivists Alliance (CAA), Statement of Purpose (2017) [
Council of Europe, Quality History Education in the 21st Century: Principles and Guidelines (2018) [
Institute of Certified Records Managers (ICRM), Code of Ethics (s.d.) [
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA), The Safeguarding of the Audio Heritage: Ethics, Principles and Preservation Strategy (1997; 2001; 2005) [
International Committee of Historical Sciences (ICHS/CISH), Constitution (1926; 1992; 2005) [
International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF), Code of Ethics (1998) [
International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), IFLA Statement on Access to Personally Identifiable Information in Historical Records (2008, updated 2019) [
International Council on Archives (ICA),Constitution  (2012) [
—, Code of Ethics(1996) [
A][C][D][E][F][G][I][P][R][S][Basque] [Danish][Dutch/Flemish] [Galician] [Greek] [Hungarian] [Japanese] [Norwegian] [Polish] [Romanian] [Serbian] [Slovenian][Swedish]
—, Declaration on the Reclassification of Documents and Limitation to Their Access (2022) [
—, Guiding Principles for Safe Havens for Archives at Risk (2019): draft (2018) [
E]; commentaries on draft (2018) [E]; final text (2019) [E]; commentary on final text (2020) [E]
—, Questionnaire on the ICA Code of Ethics: Results and Recommendations (2008) [
—, (Executive Committee), The View of the Archival Community on Settling Disputed Archival Claims (1995) [
—, Universal Declaration on Archives, Draft (2009) [
E]; Final version (2010): [A][C][E][F][S]
—, (Committee on Best Practices and Standards / Working Group on Access), Principles of Access to Archives, Draft (2011): [
E][F][S]; Definitive version (2012): [E][F]
—, Basic Principles on the Role of Archivists and Record Managers in Support of Human Rights, Draft (2014): [
E][F][S]; comment by Centre for Law and Democracy (2015) [E]; Final version (2016): [E][F][S]
—, (with International Federation of Library Associations, IFLA), IFLA-ICA Statement on Privacy Legislation and Archiving (2020) [
—, Principles for Archives and Records Legislation: Draft (2004) [
International Students of History Association (ISHA), Code of Conduct (s.d. [2021?]) [
International Union for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences (UISPP), Constitution (2011) [
United Nations, Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of State Property, Archives and Debts (1983) [This convention never entered into force.][
—, Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Archives (2015) [
—, High Commissioner for Human Rights, Report on Archives as Means to Guarantee the Right to the Truth (2011) [
UNESCO, Recommendation on International Principles Applicable to Archaeologocial Excavations (1956) [
—, Model Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements and Conventions concerning the Transfer of Archives (1981) [
World Archaeological Congress (WAC), Statutes (1990, amended 2013) [
—, First Code of Ethics (1990); The Vermillion Accord on Human Remains (1989); The Tamaki Makau-rau Accord on the Display of Human Remains and Sacred Objects (2006); Code of Ethics For The Amazon Forest Peoples (1994) [
—, The WAC Dead Sea Accord: On the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (2014) [


Asociación de arqueólogos profesionales de la República Argentina (AAPRA), Proyecto de código de ética profesional (s.d.) [
—, Proyecto de estandares de la práctica professional (s.d.) [

Australian Archaeological Association (AAA), Code of Ethics (s.d.; 2004) [
Australian Association of Consulting Archaeologists (AACAI), Code of Ethics (s.d.; 2003) [
Australian Council of Professional Historians Associations (ACPHA), Code of Ethics and Professional Standards for Professional Historians in Australia (June 2001) [
E]; (August 2001) [E]; (2006) [E]; (2015) [E]
           Superseded Codes of ACPHA Member Associations:
New South Wales, Code of Practice (1999) [
              * Queensland, Code of Practice (1990) [
              * Western Australia, Code of Practice (1989-2004) [
Australian Historical Association (AHA), Code of Conduct (2003; 2006) [
E]; (2010) [E]
—,  AHA Code of Ethics (no date) [
Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (AIMA), Code of ethics ([1985 or 1986]; 2004) [
Australian Library and Information Society (ALIA), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Protocols for Libraries, Archives and Information Services (1995) [
Australian Society for Archivists (ASA), ASA Code of Ethics (1993) [
Oral History Association of Australia, (OHAA), Guidelines of Ethical Practice (1993; s.d. [2007]) [

Oberösterreichische Landesarchiv (OÖLA),Leitbild für Archivare(s.d.) [

Association des archivistes du Québec (AAQ), Code de déontologie (s.d.; 2005) [F]
—, La Déclaration québécoise sur les archives (2006) [Catalan][E][F][S]
Association of Canadian Archivists (ACA), Code of Ethics (s.d.; 1999) [E]
Association canadienne d’archéologie (ACA), Déontologie archéologique (s.d.) [F]
—, Énoncé de principes d’éthique touchant les Autochtones (s.d.) [F]
Canadian Archaeological Association (CAA), Principles of Ethical Conduct (s.d) [E]
—, Statement of Principles for Ethical Conduct Pertaining to Aboriginal Peoples (1996) [E]
Canadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property (CAC) & Canadian Association of Professional Conservators (CAPC/ACRP), Code of Ethics and Guidance for Practice / Code de déontologie et Guide du praticien (1986; 1989; 2000) [E][F]
Canadian Association of Professional Heritage Consultants (CHPAC), Association canadienne d’experts-conseils en patrimoine (ACECP), Code of Professional Conduct & Ethics/ Code professionel et déontologie (s.d.) [E][F]
Canadian Historical Association / Société historique du Canada, Statement on Research Ethics [2011] [E][F]; no date [E]
Library and Archives Canada, Code of Conduct: Values and Ethics (2012) [E] ♦ Public Statement jointly issued by Association des archivistes du Québec, Association of Canadian Archivists, and Canadian Council of Archives concerning this code (2013) [E][F]
EUROCLIO, Manifesto on High Quality History, Heritage and Citizenship Education: 15 Principles for the Recognition of the Distinctive Contribution of History to the Development of Young People (2013) [Albanian][Arabic][E][Finnish][Hungarian][Japanese][R]
European Archives Group (EAG), Guidance on Data Protection for Archive Services (EAG Guidelines on the Implementation of the General Data Protection Regulation in the Archive Sector): draft [E]
European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers’ Organizations (ECCO), E.C.C.O. Professional Guidelines (2002) [E]
European Network Remembrance and Solidarity (ENRS), Guidelines for International Discourse on History and Memory [E]
European Association of Archaeologists (EAA), EAA Code  of Practice (1997) [E][G][I][Polish] [Romanian][S]
—, EAA Principles of Conductfor Archaeologists Involved in Contract Archaeological Work (1998) [E][G][I][S]
Association des Archivistes Français (AAF) Code de déontologie (1996) [F]
Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland (IAI), Code of Professional Conduct (2006) [E]
—, Code of Conduct for Archaeological Assessment Excavation (2006) [E]
—, Code of Conduct for Archaeological Monitoring(2006) [E]
—, Code of Conduct for Treatment of Archaeological Objects(2006) [E]
—, Code of Conduct for Treatment of Human Remains (2006) [E]
Irish Association of Professional Archaeologists (IAPA),Guidelines for Archaeologists (2000) [E]
Codice di deontologia e di buona condotta per i trattamenti di dati personali per scopi storici / Code of conduct and professional practice regarding the processing of personal data for historical purposes(2001) [E][I] ♦ replaced by: Regole deontologiche per il trattamento a fini di archiviazione nel pubblico interesse o per scopi di ricerca storicaDeontological rules for the processing [of personal data] for archiving purposes in the public interest and for historical research purposes (2018)[I]
Journal "Storia della Storiografia / History of Historiography", Codice Etico (2017) [I] Ethic Code [E]
Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie voor Wetenschappen (KNAW; Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences), Richtlijnen voor historisch-wetenschappelijk onderzoek in opdracht (Principles for Commissioned Historical Research) (2007) [D]
Koninklijk Nederlands Historisch Genootschap (KNHG), Position Paper Werkgroep Beroepsethiek (2016) [D]
Koninklijke Vereniging van Archivarissen in Nederland (KVAN), Beroepscode voor archivarissen (1997) [D]
Nederlandse Vereniging van Archeologen (NVvA), Het handvest (1995) [D]
—,Gedragscode voor beroepsarcheologen van de NVvA (2001) [D]
Nederlandse Vereniging van Restauratoren (Dutch Association of Professional Restorers) (VeRes) Code of Ethics (1992; 2003) [E]
New Zealand
Archives and Records Association of New Zealand (ARANZ), Code of Ethics for the Archives and Records Association of New Zealand (s.d.) [E]
National Oral History Association of New Zealand (NOHANZ), Code of Ethical and Technical Practice (2001) [E]
New Zealand Archaeological Association (NZAA), Code of Ethics (1993) [E] (1996, 1999) [E]
Professional Historians Association of New Zealand/ Aotearoa (PHANZA), Code of Practice (1998) [E]
Colegio professional de arqueólogos del Peru (COARPE), Código de ética (2005) [S]
Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce  ["Good practices for review procedures in science"] (2011) [Polish]
Associação Portuguesa de Bibliotecários, Arquivistas e Documentalistas (APBAD) Código de ética (1999) [P]
Slovenský archív sociálnych dát (Slovak Archive of Social Data) (SASD), Etický kódex Slovenského archívu sociálnych dát (s.d.) [Slovak]
South Africa
Center for Popular Memory, Interview Ethics (s.d.) [E]
Oral History Association of South Africa (OHASA), Outline of a Code of Ethics for Oral History Practitioners in South Africa [draft] (2007) [E]
San Code of Research Ethics (2017) [E]
Associació d'Arxivers de Catalunya (Archivists Association of Catalonia), Code of Ethics of Catalan Archivists (s.d.) [Catalan][E][S]
Association suisse de conservation et restauration/Schweizerischer Verband für Konservierung und Restaurierung (SCR/SKR), Berufsbild und Ehrenkodex / Définition de la profession et code de déontologie (2005) [F][G][I]
Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Geschichte (SGG), Ethik-Kodex / Grundsätze zur Freiheit der wissenschaftlichen historischen Forschung und Lehre (2004) [G]
Société suisse d’histoire (SSH), Code d’éthique / Principes de la liberté de la recherche et de l’enseignement scientifiques de l’histoire (2004) [F]
Verein Schweizerischer Archivarinnen und Archivare (VSA) / Association des Archivistes suisses (AAS) / Associazione degli archivisti svizzeri (AAS) / Uniun da las archivarias e dals archivaris svizzers (UAS), Code of Ethics for Archivists (1998) [E][F][G][I]
United Kingdom
Archives and Records Association (formerly: Society of Archivists), Code of Conduct (1994) [E]
Institute of Conservation (ICON), Code of Ethics and Rules of Practice (2002; 2007) [E]
Institute of Field Archaeologists (IFA), Code of Approved Practicefor the Regulation of Contractual\ Arrangements in Field Archaeology (1990; 1993; 1994; 1995; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2002) [E]
—, Code of Conduct (1985; 1988; 1993; 1994; 1995; 1996; 1997; 2000; 2002; 2006; 2007) [E]
Lord Chancellor’s Code of Practice on the Management of Records under Section 46 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (2002) [E]
National Archives of Scotland, Data Protection Code of Practice on Archival Information (2010) [E]
Oral History Society (OHS), Ethical Guidelines (s.d.) [E]
—, Copyright and Ethics (2003) [E]
— (Allen Ward), Is Your Oral History Legal and Ethical (s.d.) [E]
Royal Historical Society, Statement on Ethics (2004) [E] (2015) [E]
—, Statement on Good Practice for Historians (no date [2022?]) [E]
Society of Qualified Archivists, Code of Ethics (2004) [E]
Standing Conference on Archives and Museums (SCAM), A Code of Practice on Archives for Museums and Galleries in the United Kingdom  (1990; 2002) [E]
United States
Academy of Certified Archivists (ACA) The 2003 Role Delineation Statement Revision (2003) [E]
ALA-SAA Joint Statement on Access to Original Research Materials and Manuscript Repositories in Libraries, Archives and Manuscript Repositories(1979) [E]
American Association for State and Local History (AASLH), Statement of Professional Standards and Ethics (2002) [E] (2007) [E]
American Historical Association (AHA), Report of the AHA Committee on the Rights of Historians (1974) [E]
American Historical Association (AHA), Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct: 1974 [E]; 1987; 1990 [E]; 1995; 1996; 1999 [E]; 2000; 2001; 2003 [E]; 2005 [E]; 2011 [E]; 2019 [E]; 2023 [forthcoming]
American Historical Association (AHA), Guidelines for the Professional Evaluation of Digital Scholarship by Historians (2015) [E]
American Historical Association (AHA), Guidelines for the Incorporation of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in the Work of the History Profession (2019) [E]
American Historical Association (AHA), Guidelines on Broadening the Definition of Historical Scholarship (2023) [E]
American Institute for Conservation (AIC), Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice (1979) [E]; (1985); (1994) [E]
Archaeological Institute of America (AIA), Code of Ethics, 1990 [E]; 1997 [E]
—, Code of Professional Standards,1994 [E]; 1997 [E]
—, Resolutions on Illicitly Excavated Artifacts, 1973 [E]
California Committee for the Promotion of History (CCPH), Standards of Professional Conduct (2006) [E]
College Art Association (CAA), A Code of Ethics for Art Historians and Guidelines for the Professional Practice of Art History (1973‒75; 1995) [E] Also on Guidelines for Curatorial Studies Programs (2004); CAA Statement on the Importance of Documenting the Historical Context of Objects and Sites (2004); CAA Standards for Retention and Tenure of Art Historians (2002; 2005; 2007); CAA Standards for Peer Review (2003)
First Archivists Circle, Protocol for Native American Archival Materials ([2007]) [E]
History Relevance Campaign, The Value of History ([2015]) [E]
National Council on Public History (NCPH), NCPH Ethics Guidelines (1986) [E]; (2007) [E]; (2008) [E]; 2012 [E]
Oral History Association (OHA), Oral History Evaluation Guidelines, 1989; (1996) [E]; (2000) [E]; Principles and Best Practices for Oral History (2009) [E]
Organization of American Historians (OAH), Professional Integrity and the OAH, (2003) [E]
Register of Professional Archaeologists (RPA) Code of Conduct (1976) [E]
—, Standards of Research Performance (1976; 2005) [E]
Society for American Archaeology (SAA), Principles of Archaeological Ethics (1996; 2004) [E] (revision 2016) [E]; Task Force on Revisions: report (2018) [E]
—, Standards for Access and Appraisal of Gifts (1973)[E]
—, Statement Concerning the Treatment of Human Remains (2021) (draft) [E][S]
Society of American Archivists (SAA) Code of Ethics for Archivists (1980); (1991) [E]; (1991 with commentary) [E]; (1992) [E]; (2005) [E]; Core Values Statement (2011) and Code of Ethics (2012) [E] (alternative version [E])
Society for Historical Archeology (SHA), Ethical Principles of the Society for Historical Archaeology (2003) [E]
Society for History in the Federal Government (SHFG), Principles and Standards for Federal Historical Programs (s.d.) [E]
University of Chicago History Departement, Statement from the Senior Members of the Department (2017) [E]; Mission Statement on Diversity, Inclusion and Equity (2017) [E]
UNESCO, Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge (1999) [E][F][S]
—, Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel (1997) [E][F][S]
—, Recommendation on the Status of Scientific Researchers (1974) [E][F]
—, Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers (1966) [E][F]
—, Recommendation on Science and Scientific Researchers (2017) [E]
Magna Charta Universitatum (1988) [E][F][S]; (2020) [E]
2019: Global Forum on Academic Freedom, Institutional Autonomy, and the Future of Democracy, Declaration [E]
2012: Global Research Council, Statement of Principles for Scientific Merit Review [E]
2006: Council of Europe,Academic Freedom and University Autonomy (1) Recommendation 1762 [E];
     (2) Report Doc. 10943 [
2006: Baghdad-Amman Declaration on Academic Freedom in Iraqi Universities [E]
2005: SAR, Scholars at Risk Founding Statement [E]
2004: Amman Declaration on Academic Freedom and the Independence of Institutions of Higher
     Education and Scientific Research [
2001: NEAR, Statement of the Network for Education and Academic Rights [E]
2001 / 2004: Education International, Declaration on Professional Ethics [E][F][G][S]
1998: UNESCO, The World Declaration on Higher Education for the Twenty-First Century ([E]
1998: International Association of Universities, Statement on Academic Freedom, University Autonomy and Social Responsibility [E]
1995: Genoa Declaration on Science and Society [E]
1992: Sinaia Statement on Academic Freedom and University Autonomy [E]
1990: Kampala Declaration on Intellectual Freedom and Social Responsibility [E]
1990: Dar es Salaam Declaration on Academic Freedom and Social Responsibility of Academics [E]
1988: Declaration on Academic Freedom and Autonomy of Institutions of Higher Education [E]
1966: Statement on Professional Ethics [revised 1987, 2009] [E]
1940: American Association of University Professors,The 1940 Statement of Principles of Academic Freedom and Tenure with 1970 Interpretive Comments [E]